Orbiter, lander and rover: What makes Chandrayaan-2 a technically complex mission?

Orbiter, lander and rover: What makes Chandrayaan-2 a technically complex mission?

"Evidence for water molecules discovered by Chandrayaan-1, requires further studies on the extent of water molecule distribution on the surface, below the surface and in the tenuous lunar exosphere to address the origin of water on Moon".

Ahead of the launch of Chandrayaan 2, ISRO Chairman Kailasavadivoo Sivan visited the Balaji temple at Tirumala hill shrine and Sri Chengalamma temple in Sullurupet, close to Sriharikota in Nellore district on Saturday.

You can also log on to Doordarshan's official channel on YouTube, which will live stream the Chandrayaan-2 launch visuals.

If everything goes according to plan, the launcher will inject the spacecraft into an elliptical earth parking orbit with a perigee, or low point, of 170 kilometers and an apogee, or high point, of 40,400 kilometers. This data collected by the orbiter will be used to produce a 3D image of the moon's terrain.

An artist's illustration of India's Chandrayaan-2 orbiter (bottom) and the Vikram lander, which carries the Pragyan rover, in orbit around the moon.

The mission, Chandrayaan-2, which means "moon vehicle" in Sanskrit, will send a rover to collect samples from the surface of the moon and monitor seismic activity.

Chandrayaan-2 will blast off from the Satish Dhawan Space Center at Sriharikota on the country's south west coast at 2.51am (10.21pm BST) on July 15.

India is getting ready to launch its first-ever lunar lander on Sunday 14 July.

The success of Chandrayaan-2 will enhance India's prestige as an advanced spacefaring nation.

What is special about Chandrayaan 2?

The material ejected from the sub surface allowed ISRO to detect lunar water ice - a valuable resource that could enable future exploration. This is just one of the eight instruments, or payloads, on board the orbiter. Of the lunar poles, the south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

The IDSN is a network of antennas and communication facilities established by ISRO to support interplanetary spacecraft missions.

In total, the latest mission will cost around $143 million, which is less than some Hollywood blockbusters as Indian outlet The News Minute reports.

The Orbiter will spend a year circulating the moon at a distance of 62miles (100km) from the surface. Pragyan is created to travel for up to 0.3 miles (0.5 kilometers) and to last for about one lunar day, which is equivalent to 14 Earth days.

Orbiter, Lander and Rover will remain in contact with ground stations. This autonomous vehicle will carry its own set of instruments to conduct experiments over a planned 14-day life span. In a brief interaction, Sivan, also the Secretary, Department of Space, said the lander would make a soft landing in the lunar South Pole, an uncharted territory so far, on September 6.

GSLV Mk III is now capable of placing a 4,000 kg satellite in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit, which is at a height of about 42,000 kilometres above the Earth's surface. The spacecraft's orbit will be raised by a series of manoeuvres to put it on Lunar Transfer Trajectory. Once safely down, the Vikram lander will release a small, six-wheeled rover named Pragyan.

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