What’s the Difference Between COVID-19 and Coronavirus?

What’s the Difference Between COVID-19 and Coronavirus?

The studies quickly revealed human-to-human transmission through a single introduction to the human population. On their online COVID-19 guide, they explained they have chosen to not use the term "SARS-CoV-2" because "using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations, especially in Asia which was worst affected by the SARS outbreak in 2003".

The scientists analyzed the genetic template for spike proteins, armatures on the outside of the virus that it uses to grab and penetrate the outer walls of human and animal cells.

The first site they focused on in the virus is called the receptor-binding domain (RBD), responsible for the virus connecting to the receptor in the host's target cells.

As it turned out, RBD evolved to efficiently interact with the ACE2 cell receptor.

Protein of SARS-CoV-2 was so effective for binding of human cells that scientists have concluded that it is the result of natural selection, not a product of genetic engineering.

Viral loads peaked three days after infection, and SARS-CoV-2 was undetectable after 14 days.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the coronavirus disease that originated in Wuhan, China, is caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans. However, the basis of the new coronavirus is significantly different from the already known coronaviruses that infect humans.

COVID-19 is spread through contact with respiratory droplets of a person now infected with the virus. The team reports that there is no evidence of the novel virus having been produced in a laboratory or otherwise artificially engineered. The outbreaks of the coronaviruses that caused the diseases MERS and SARS first arose in that way.

China gave the world nearly two months to prepare for the most serious threat of our generation, a new coronavirus that can be deadly in the elderly and immunocompromised.

A second scenario posits that a non-pathogenic version of the virus crossed from an animal host into humans and only then became harmful once it mutated inside a human. Until the spread of this virus is in check as it can live up to 3 hours in the air, you should avoid being near people. Scientists are now investigating if the virus can be transmitted to others if someone is not showing symptoms. A coronavirus from a pangolin could possibly have been transmitted to a human, either directly or through an intermediary host such as civets or ferrets. So was the SARS epidemic that Saudi Arabia had to fight in 2012. Then, once inside a human host, the virus could have evolved to have its other stealth feature - the cleavage site that lets it easily break into human cells.

Study co-author Andrew Rambaut cautioned that it is hard if not impossible to know at this point which of the scenarios is most likely. Many others are studying new therapies that have started to show promise, as well as vaccines. A designer artificially creating the virus would have used the known solutions for the virus to enter human cells.

Reference: "The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2" by Kristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, Edward C. Holmes and Robert F. Garry, 17 March 2020, Nature Medicine.

The work is backed by $998,840 in funding announced Thursday from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

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